The Poseidonian chora encompasses the plain South of the Sele River, which formed the ancient boundary between the Greek lands and the Etruscan territory to the North, East to the Alburnus Mountains and South to the Punta Licosa. The aim of this study is to understand the nature of the relationship between the Greek settlers of Poseidonia, founded at the turn of the sixth century BC in the Sele Plain (in modern Campania), and the Italic peoples indigenous in the plain. The Greek city flourished from its foundation until about 400 BC when it came under the control of Lucanians from the nearby Apennines. Recent attention has focused on its three well-preserved temples, the rich cemeteries, and the sanctuaries outside the walls. This present study examines the hypothesis that not only was the relationship cordial during the 200-year tenure of the Greeks, but that the indigenous groups actually collaborated in the founding of the city.